Biomedical waste management pdf


    Bio Medical Waste (Management and. Handling) Rules in July In accordance with these rules, it is the duty of every. β€œoccupier” i.e. a person who has the. generate kg of waste, per bed per day. Of this,. kg can be categorized as biomedical risk waste. β—‹ There are many small hospitals and clinics which. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | On Jul 10, , Kalpana Nagarajan and others published Biomedical waste and its management.

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    Biomedical Waste Management Pdf

    𝗣𝗗𝗙 | Medical waste is all waste material generated in health care facilities, such as hospitals, clinics, physician's offices, dental practices, blood banks, and. The issue of biomedical waste management has assumed great significance in recent times present system of biomedical waste disposal system in. BFUDJ, Volume 2 Number 2 October, 1 REVIEW 1 BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT SINGH ANANTPREET KAUR SUKHJIT2 IN DENTAL OFFICE 1.

    India contributes 0. Dental surgeons contribute to biomedical wastes not only in the form of sharps, blood-soaked materials, human tissues etc. The Dental fraternity should ensure that biomedical wastes are handled safely to protect Lecturer human health and the environment. The dentists should be trained about disposal of Biomedical Dept. Mercury containing wastes own menace i.

    Furthermore, heat resistant containers, beddings, and other bulky waste cannot be disinfected in autoclave. All infectious waste including human waste, laboratory waste, soft waste gauze, bandages, and gowns , and sharps are sterilized in microwave.

    Volatile, semi-volatile organic compounds, mercury, and radiological waste should not be put in microwave. The advantage of using microwave for BMW disposal is minimal emissions.

    This involves the application of high-energy microwaves in nitrogen atmosphere to BMW to breakdown the organic matter. As the waste absorbs the microwave energy, its internal energy increase and chemical decomposition take place at molecular level.

    Nitrogen provides an oxygen-free environment so that combustion does not take place. Plasma pyrolysis uses plasma torches to generate plasma energy. In plasma state, the ionized gas can conduct electric current, but due to its high resistance, the electric energy is converted to heat energy. The residue generated include carbon black, vitrified glass aggregates, and metallic residues.

    (PDF) biomedical waste disposal | Sukhjeet Kaur -

    A wide variety of waste can be destroyed in plasma-based technology β€” infectious waste, sharps, plastics, dialysis waste, hazardous waste, chemotherapeutic waste, chemotherapy waste, and low-level radioactive waste one exemption is mercury which plasma systems do not handle. Many advantages of this system are low emission rate, waste residue is inert and sterile, i.

    Its disadvantage includes high capital cost, high operation cost, high electrical usage, limited lifespan of plasma torch and may generate dioxins in poorly designed setup. The type of waste treated by chemical-based technology includes cultures, sharps, liquid waste, human waste, laboratory waste, and soft waste gauze, bandages, and gowns.

    Volatile, semi-volatile organic compounds, mercury, and radiological waste should not be treated with chemical-based methods. The chemical-based technology requires closed system or is operated under negative pressure and the exhausted air has to be passed through HEPA to safeguard against aerosol formation during shredding.

    In chemical-based technology, shredding of BMW is must. The advantages of chemical-based technology include fully automated technique, easy to use, ease of discharge of liquid effluent into the sewage, and no by-products of combustion formed.

    The disadvantages include toxic by-products due to large-scale chlorine and hypochlorite use, chemical hazards, and often production of offensive odor. The chemical-based technology can be divided into chlorine- and nonchlorine-based systems.

    The chlorine-based system uses sodium hypochlorite or chlorine dioxide. Sodium hypochlorite was one of the first chemical disinfectants used to treat BMW. Lately, it has been shown that toxins such as dioxins, halo acetic acid, and chlorinated aromatic compounds are released where sodium hypochlorite is used. Chlorine dioxide is unstable, so it is generated and used on-site.

    It is a strong biocide.

    It decomposes to form salt, less toxins are produced with its use, and it does not react with ammonium or alcohol. Nonchlorine-based technologies use either gas, liquid, or dry chemical to treat BMW.

    Many of such system have come in market and few are discussed here. The SteriEcocycle uses a portable chamber for collecting waste into which a peracetic acid-based decontaminant vial is added. After 10β€”12 min, peracetic acid disinfects the waste and aerosolized pathogens are prevented from escaping by use of HEPA filter. The liquid effluent is discharged into sewer and the waste goes as regular rash. In addition, it can handle chemotherapy waste. The alkali also destroys fixative sin tissues and various hazardous chemicals such as glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde.

    This automated system has a steam-jacketed stainless steel container with a retainer for biodegradable waste such as bone and teeth. Radioactive waste HCWH , which is an international coalition of hospitals, is genotoxic, and a sufficiently high radiation dose may also professionals and Non-Governmental Organizations NGOs.

    WHO has also endorsed and supported 5. The incineration of materials in a study done by HECAF in Bir hospital, Kathmandu containing chlorine can generate dioxins and furans, found hospital waste of 1.

    Dioxins, furans and metals are persistent and accumulate in the environment. The three year Interim management. A study done by Paudel et al. S care waste management practice in the hospital was mentioned the programs for Health Care Waste unsatisfactory because of the lack of waste management plan Management. Collection of bio-medical waste Collection of bio-medical waste should be done as per Biomedical waste Management and Handling Rules Table 5.

    It is also found that health workers have poor knowledge and awareness on biomedical waste generation hazards, legislation and management.

    Segregation of waste The current waste management practice observed at many hospitals is that all wastes, potentially infectious, office, general, food, construction debris, and hazardous chemical 3. Proper sharps management system materials are all mixed together as they are generated, Indiscriminate disposal of sharps needles, syringes, lancets, collected, transported and finally disposed of.

    As a result of and other invasive tools is hazardous. Proper segregation of this there is failure of segregation of wastes as a whole which these materials in rigid, puncture proof containers with safe is both potentially infectious and hazardous chemicals. The treatment and disposal should be carried out in any health care workers who handle the wastes hospital workers, municipal institution.

    If proper sharps management are practised in all workers are at greater risks. General public can be affected health care facilities, most of the risk of disease transmission due to accidental exposure from contact with wastes at from medical waste would be solved.

    It includes proper municipal disposal bins, exposure to chemical or biological equipment and containers distributed everywhere the sharps contaminants in water and exposure to chemical pollutants are generated needle cutters and needle boxes. Waste minimization Segregation is done at the source of generation of biomedical waste e.

    Special emphasis procedure rooms etc. The responsibility of segregation should should be given while downloading hospital products. Mercury- be with the generator of biomedical waste i.

    The biomedical waste should be segregated as developing countries have no capacity to safely manage per categories mentioned in the rules. Source reduction - downloading reduction: selection of supplies that are less wasteful and less hazardous Human Anatomical - Use of physical rather than chemical cleaning methods steam disinfection in place of Waste chemical disinfection - Prevention of wastage of products in nursing and cleaning activities 2.

    Transportation Within hospital, waste routes must be planned to avoid the passage of waste through patient care areas. Alternate time Solid Waste should be earmarked for transportation of biomedical waste to reduce chances of its mixing with general waste. Trolleys or carts should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected in the event of any spillage.

    The wheeled containers should be Advantages and disadvantages of different methods of so designed that the waste can be easily loaded, remains treatment secured during transportation, does not have any sharp edges and is easy to clean and disinfect. Hazardous biomedical waste Table 7: Advantages and disadvantages of different needing transport to a long distance should be kept in methods of waste treatment containers and should have proper labels.

    The transport is done through desiccated vehicles specially constructed for the [Source: Healthcare without Harm ; WHO purpose having fully enclosed body, lined internally with Treatment Advantages stainless steel or aluminium to provide smooth and Disadvantages methods impervious surface which can be cleaned.

    The driver's compartment should be separated from the load compartment with a bulkhead. The load compartment should be provided with roof vents for ventilation. Treatment of hospital waste Treatment of waste is required to disinfect the waste so that it is no longer the source of infection, reduce the volume of the waste, make waste unrecognizable for aesthetic reasons and make recycled items unusable.

    Safety measures education, and hospital management which should be governed by the committee. Proper supervision, monitoring All the generators of biomedical waste should adopt universal and implementation of the action plan on management of precautions and appropriate safety measures while doing hospital waste should be carried out.

    The annual reports, therapeutic and diagnostic activities and also while handling accident reports, training schedules etc. Hospital engineer Head of environmental services Infection control Pharmaceutical - Vaccination against infectious diseases Hepatitis B, tetanus is given.

    Department heads Medical and dental Matron and Engineering hospital 8. Education and training Pharmacy Radiology Waste management manager Laboratory officer Blood bank Catering Workers handling hospital wastes are at greatest risk from Housekeeping Internal transport system Finance exposure to the potentially infectious wastes and chemical Administration Ward sisters, hazardous wastes without proper knowledge of the exposure Hospital attendants, nurses and ancillary workers and medical risks or access to necessary protective gear.

    A study done in Support staff waste handlers assistants Gujrat showed that though the doctors knew about the hazards of improper management of biomedical wastes, they were Coordination between hospital and outside agencies unaware of the different methods used for their treatment and disposal.

    Awareness of biomedical waste management among health care personnel in jaipur, India.

    Impact of intervention on healthcare waste management practices in a tertiary care governmental Funding: None hospital of Nepal also showed positive results. Copy the following to cite this article: Copy the following to cite this URL: Article Publishing History Received: Primary health centers.

    Veterinary colleges and animal research centers. Biotechnology institutions. Production units. Blood donation camps. Vaccination centers. Funeral services. Institutions for disabled persons Problems relating to biomedical waste A major issue related to current Bio-Medical waste management in many hospitals is that the implementation of Bio-Waste regulation is unsatisfactory as some hospitals are disposing of waste in a haphazard, improper and indiscriminate manner.

    Figure 1: Injuries from sharps leading to infection to all categories of hospital personnel and waste handler. Risk of infection outside hospital for waste handlers and scavengers and at time general public living in the vicinity of hospitals. Risk associated with hazardous chemicals, drugs to persons handling wastes at all levels.

    Drugs which have been disposed of, being repacked and sold off to unsuspecting downloaders. Risk of air, water and soil pollution directly due to waste, or due to defective incineration emissions and ash. But the problem can be simplified and its dimension reduced considerably if a proper management system is planned. Incineration Technology This is a high temperature thermal process employing combustion of the waste under controlled condition for converting them into inert material and gases.

    Incinerators can be oil fired or electrically powered or a combination thereof. Broadly, three types of incinerators are used for hospital waste: All the types can have primary and secondary combustion chambers to ensure optimal combustion. These are refractory lined. The majority of non-incineration technologies employ the thermal and chemical processes.

    The main purpose of the treatment technology is to decontaminate waste by destroying pathogens. Facilities should make certain that the technology could meet state criteria for disinfection. Date of generation ……………… Waste category No ……..

    Phone No Telex No …… Phone No. Specific fund should be allocated for the use of incinerator.

    Biomedical Waste Management

    Every hospital should have special boxes to use as dustbin for bio-medical waste. Bio-medical waste should not be mixed with other waste of Municipal Corporation. Private hospitals should also be allowed to use incinerator, which is installed, in govt. For this purpose a specific fee can be charged from private hospitals. Special vehicle i.

    As provided by bio-medical waste rules, the whole of the waste should be fragmented into colours due to their hazardous nature.

    Bio-medical waste Management Board can be established in each District. Either judicial powers should be given to the management board or special court should be established in the matters of environment pollution for imposing fines and awarding damages etc.

    Housekeeping staff wear protective devices such as gloves, face masks, gowned, while handling the waste.

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