BENVOLIO nephew to Montague, and friend to Romeo. TYBALT nephew Romeo and Juliet: ACT I. Volume III .. Of breaches, ambuscadoes, Spanish blades. Download Romeo and Juliet free in PDF & EPUB format. Download William Shakespeare.'s Romeo and Juliet for your kindle, tablet, IPAD, PC or mobile. Romeo and Juliet. William Shakespeare. Classic | English | 25/02/ Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the public and we .
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CHORUS. PRINCE ESCALUS, Prince of Verona. PARIS, a young Count, kinsman to the Prince. MONTAGUE, heads of two houses at variance with each other. Free PDF, epub, Kindle ebook. Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written early in the career of William Shakespeare about two young star-crossed lovers whose. Verona (ltaly)-Drama. 4. Vendetta-Drama. 6. Young adult drama, English. [1. Shakespeare, William, Romeo and Juliet. 2. Plays. 3. English literature-.
He encounters Paris who has come to mourn Juliet privately. Believing Romeo to be a vandal, Paris confronts him and, in the ensuing battle, Romeo kills Paris.
Still believing Juliet to be dead, he drinks the poison. Juliet then awakens and, discovering that Romeo is dead, stabs herself with his dagger and joins him in death.
The feuding families and the Prince meet at the tomb to find all three dead. Friar Laurence recounts the story of the two "star-cross'd lovers". The families are reconciled by their children's deaths and agree to end their violent feud.
Romeo and Juliet borrows from a tradition of tragic love stories dating back to antiquity. One of these is Pyramus and Thisbe , from Ovid 's Metamorphoses , which contains parallels to Shakespeare's story: the lovers' parents despise each other, and Pyramus falsely believes his lover Thisbe is dead.
History records the name of the family Montague as being lent to such a political party in Verona , but that of the Capulets as from a Cremonese family, both of whom play out their conflict in Lombardy as a whole rather than within the confines of Verona.
The earliest known version of the Romeo and Juliet tale akin to Shakespeare's play is the story of Mariotto and Gianozza by Masuccio Salernitano , in the 33rd novel of his Il Novellino published in His version of the story includes the secret marriage, the colluding friar, the fray where a prominent citizen is killed, Mariotto's exile, Gianozza's forced marriage, the potion plot, and the crucial message that goes astray.
In this version, Mariotto is caught and beheaded and Gianozza dies of grief. The next morning, the Savorgnans led an attack on the city , and many members of the Strumieri were murdered.
When years later, half-paralyzed from a battle-wound, he wrote Giulietta e Romeo in Montorso Vicentino from where he could see the "castles" of Verona , he dedicated the novella to bellisima e leggiadra madonna Lucina Savorgnan.
Da Porto gave Romeo and Juliet most of its modern form, including the names of the lovers, the rival families of Montecchi and Capuleti, and the location in Verona. Da Porto originated the remaining basic elements of the story: the feuding families, Romeo — left by his mistress — meeting Giulietta at a dance at her house, the love scenes including the balcony scene , the periods of despair, Romeo killing Giulietta's cousin Tebaldo , and the families' reconciliation after the lovers' suicides.
Bandello lengthened and weighed down the plot while leaving the storyline basically unchanged though he did introduce Benvolio. Boaistuau adds much moralising and sentiment, and the characters indulge in rhetorical outbursts. Romeo and Juliet is a dramatisation of Brooke's translation, and Shakespeare follows the poem closely but adds extra detail to both major and minor characters in particular the Nurse and Mercutio.
Juliet's nurse refers to an earthquake she says occurred 11 years ago. Other earthquakes—both in England and in Verona—have been proposed in support of the different dates. These are referred to as Q1 and Q2. The first printed edition, Q1, appeared in early , printed by John Danter. Because its text contains numerous differences from the later editions, it is labelled a so-called ' bad quarto '; the 20th-century editor T. Spencer described it as "a detestable text, probably a reconstruction of the play from the imperfect memories of one or two of the actors", suggesting that it had been pirated for publication.
Alternative theories are that some or all of 'the bad quartos' are early versions by Shakespeare or abbreviations made either for Shakespeare's company or for other companies. It was printed in by Thomas Creede and published by Cuthbert Burby. Q2 is about lines longer than Q1. Scholars believe that Q2 was based on Shakespeare's pre-performance draft called his foul papers since there are textual oddities such as variable tags for characters and "false starts" for speeches that were presumably struck through by the author but erroneously preserved by the typesetter.
It is a much more complete and reliable text and was reprinted in Q3 , Q4 and Q5. Pope began a tradition of editing the play to add information such as stage directions missing in Q2 by locating them in Q1. This tradition continued late into the Romantic period.
Fully annotated editions first appeared in the Victorian period and continue to be produced today, printing the text of the play with footnotes describing the sources and culture behind the play.
Proposals for a main theme include a discovery by the characters that human beings are neither wholly good nor wholly evil, but instead are more or less alike,  awaking out of a dream and into reality, the danger of hasty action, or the power of tragic fate. None of these have widespread support. However, even if an overall theme cannot be found it is clear that the play is full of several small, thematic elements that intertwine in complex ways.
Several of those most often debated by scholars are discussed below. Juliet Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much, Which mannerly devotion shows in this; For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch, And palm to palm is holy palmers' kiss.
Since it is such an obvious subject of the play, several scholars have explored the language and historical context behind the romance of the play. By using metaphors of saints and sins, Romeo was able to test Juliet's feelings for him in a non-threatening way. This method was recommended by Baldassare Castiglione whose works had been translated into English by this time. He pointed out that if a man used a metaphor as an invitation, the woman could pretend she did not understand him, and he could retreat without losing honour.
Juliet, however, participates in the metaphor and expands on it. The religious metaphors of "shrine", "pilgrim", and "saint" were fashionable in the poetry of the time and more likely to be understood as romantic rather than blasphemous, as the concept of sainthood was associated with the Catholicism of an earlier age.
In the later balcony scene, Shakespeare has Romeo overhear Juliet's soliloquy, but in Brooke's version of the story, her declaration is done alone. By bringing Romeo into the scene to eavesdrop, Shakespeare breaks from the normal sequence of courtship. Usually, a woman was required to be modest and shy to make sure that her suitor was sincere, but breaking this rule serves to speed along the plot.
The lovers are able to skip courting and move on to plain talk about their relationship— agreeing to be married after knowing each other for only one night.
Romeo and Juliet's love seems to be expressing the "Religion of Love" view rather than the Catholic view. Another point is that although their love is passionate, it is only consummated in marriage, which keeps them from losing the audience's sympathy.
Throughout the story, both Romeo and Juliet, along with the other characters, fantasise about it as a dark being , often equating it with a lover.
Capulet, for example, when he first discovers Juliet's faked death, describes it as having deflowered his daughter. Right before her suicide, she grabs Romeo's dagger, saying "O happy dagger! This is thy sheath. There rust, and let me die. No consensus exists on whether the characters are truly fated to die together or whether the events take place by a series of unlucky chances. Arguments in favour of fate often refer to the description of the lovers as " star-cross'd ".
This phrase seems to hint that the stars have predetermined the lovers' future. Draper points out the parallels between the Elizabethan belief in the four humours and the main characters of the play for example, Tybalt as a choleric.
Interpreting the text in the light of humours reduces the amount of plot attributed to chance by modern audiences.
For example, Romeo's challenging Tybalt is not impulsive; it is, after Mercutio's death, the expected action to take. In this scene, Nevo reads Romeo as being aware of the dangers of flouting social norms , identity, and commitments. He makes the choice to kill, not because of a tragic flaw , but because of circumstance. O heavy lightness, serious vanity, Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms, Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health, Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is!
Caroline Spurgeon considers the theme of light as "symbolic of the natural beauty of young love" and later critics have expanded on this interpretation. Romeo describes Juliet as being like the sun,  brighter than a torch,  a jewel sparkling in the night,  and a bright angel among dark clouds.
For example, Romeo and Juliet's love is a light in the midst of the darkness of the hate around them, but all of their activity together is done in night and darkness while all of the feuding is done in broad daylight.
This paradox of imagery adds atmosphere to the moral dilemma facing the two lovers: loyalty to family or loyalty to love. At the end of the story, when the morning is gloomy and the sun hiding its face for sorrow, light and dark have returned to their proper places, the outward darkness reflecting the true, inner darkness of the family feud out of sorrow for the lovers.
All characters now recognise their folly in light of recent events, and things return to the natural order, thanks to the love and death of Romeo and Juliet. Both Romeo and Juliet struggle to maintain an imaginary world void of time in the face of the harsh realities that surround them.
Stars were thought to control the fates of humanity, and as time passed, stars would move along their course in the sky, also charting the course of human lives below. Romeo speaks of a foreboding he feels in the stars' movements early in the play, and when he learns of Juliet's death, he defies the stars' course for him.
Thomas Tanselle believe that time was "especially important to Shakespeare" in this play, as he used references to "short-time" for the young lovers as opposed to references to "long-time" for the "older generation" to highlight "a headlong rush towards doom". In the end, the only way they seem to defeat time is through a death that makes them immortal through art. In Shakespeare's day, plays were most often performed at noon or in the afternoon in broad daylight.
Shakespeare uses references to the night and day, the stars, the moon, and the sun to create this illusion. He also has characters frequently refer to days of the week and specific hours to help the audience understand that time has passed in the story.
All in all, no fewer than references to time are found in the play, adding to the illusion of its passage. The earliest known critic of the play was diarist Samuel Pepys , who wrote in "it is a play of itself the worst that I ever heard in my life.
Publisher Nicholas Rowe was the first critic to ponder the theme of the play, which he saw as the just punishment of the two feuding families. In mid-century, writer Charles Gildon and philosopher Lord Kames argued that the play was a failure in that it did not follow the classical rules of drama: the tragedy must occur because of some character flaw , not an accident of fate.
Writer and critic Samuel Johnson , however, considered it one of Shakespeare's "most pleasing" plays. Actor and playwright David Garrick 's adaptation excluded Rosaline: Romeo abandoning her for Juliet was seen as fickle and reckless.
Critics such as Charles Dibdin argued that Rosaline had been purposely included in the play to show how reckless the hero was and that this was the reason for his tragic end.
Have you seen him today? Saw you him today? Madam, I had a lot on my mind an hour before Right glad I am he was not at this fray. I headed toward him, but he Peered forth the golden window of the east, saw me coming and hid in the woods.
I thought A troubled mind drove me to walk abroad, he must be feeling the same way I was—wanting Where, underneath the grove of sycamore to be alone and tired of his own company. I That westward rooteth from this city side, figured he was avoiding me, and I was perfectly So early walking did I see your son.
Towards him I made, but he was 'ware of me And stole into the covert of the wood. This mood Black and portentous must this humor prove of his is going to bring bad news, unless Unless good counsel may the cause remove.
I neither know it nor can learn of him. Have you done everything you could to make But he, his own affections' counselor, him tell you the reason? So please you, step aside. I would thou wert so happy by thy stay To hear true shrift. Good morning, cousin. Is it that early in the day? Sad hours seem long. Was that my father who left here in such a hurry? Was that my father that went hence so fast?
Out of love? I love someone. Where shall we dine? What fray was here? So, where should we eat? Yet tell me not, for I have heard it all. What fight happened here? This fight has a lot to do with Why then, O brawling love, O loving hate, hatred, but it has more to do with love. O O anything of nothing first created!
O loving hate! Love that comes O heavy lightness, serious vanity, from nothing! Sad happiness! Serious Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms! Beautiful things muddled together Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health, into an ugly mess! Love is heavy and light, bright Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is! This Dost thou not laugh? Are you laughing? If you frustrate Being vexed, a sea nourished with loving tears. What is it else? A madness most discreet, What else is love?
Farewell, my coz. Goodbye, cousin. I will go along.
And if you leave me so, you do me wrong. I am not here. What, shall I groan and tell thee? You mean I should groan and tell Groan! Why, no.
But sadly, tell me who. But tell me seriously who it is.
A sick man in sadness makes his will, Seriously, cousin, I love a woman. A word ill urged to one that is so ill. Then you were right on target. The woman I love is beautiful. Well, in that hit you miss. Diana, and shielded by the armor of chastity. Then she hath sworn that she will still live chaste? If you starve yourself of sex Cuts beauty off from all posterity. Forget to think of her. Take my advice. Do it by letting your eyes wander freely.
Look at Examine other beauties. Beautiful women like to wear To call hers exquisite, in question more. Show me a really The precious treasure of his eyesight lost. Her beauty is like a note telling me where I can see someone even more beautiful. What doth her beauty serve but as a note Where I may read who passed that passing fair?
Thou canst not teach me to forget. They exit. But what do you say to my request? My She hath not seen the change of fourteen years. Girls younger than she often marry and become happy mothers. Girls who marry so young grow up too soon. My permission is only part of her My will to her consent is but a part. If she agrees to marry you, my blessing An she agreed within her scope of choice, and fair words will confirm her choice. And you among the store, list.
At my humble house tonight, you can expect One more, most welcome, makes my number more. Look at anyone you like, and Of limping winter treads. Even such delight choose whatever woman seems best to you. Among fresh fennel buds shall you this night Once you see a lot of girls, you might not think30 Inherit at my house. Come along And like her most whose merit most shall be— with me. Which on more view of many, mine, being one, May stand in number, though in reckoning none, to PETER, handing him a paper Go, little fellow, Come, go with me.
Through fair Verona. It My house and welcome on their pleasure stay.
It is read! But here come some people, right in the nick pencil and the painter with his nets. But I am sent to of time. I must to the learned in good time! A new pain will make the one you already have seem less.
A new grief will put the old one out of your mind. Take thou some new infection to thy eye,50 And the rank poison of the old will die. For what, I pray thee? For when you cut your shin. Romeo, are you crazy? I pray, sir, can you read? May God give you a good evening. But I pray, can you read anything you see? Rest you merry. But please tell me, can you read anything you see? I can read. Have a nice Mercutio and his brother Valentine; day.
Where are they Lucio and the lively Helena. A fair assembly. Whither should they come? To supper? To our house. Whose house? Indeed, I should have asked you before who he was. My Montagues, I pray come and crush a cup of wine. Have a nice day! A woman more beautiful than the One fairer than my love?
The all-seeing sun one I love? The sun itself has never seen anyone95 Ne'er saw her match since first the world begun. There was no But in that crystal scales let there be weighed one to compare her to except herself. Call her forth to me.
What, lamb! What, ladybird! Come on! Where is God forbid! What, Juliet! What is she doing? What is it? Your mother. What is your will? What do you want? We must talk privately—10 I have remembered me.
Nurse, come back here. You know how young my daughter is. How long is it until Lammastide? Christian souls—were born on the same day. She was too Were of an age. Well, Susan is with God. But like I said, on the night of She was too good for me.
But, as I said, Lammas Eve, she will be fourteen. Yes, she will. On Lammas Eve at night shall she be fourteen. Indeed, I remember it well. Marry, I remember it well. She stopped nursing from 25 'Tis since the earthquake now eleven years, my breast on that very day. I And she was weaned—I never shall forget it— had put bitter wormwood on my breast as I was Of all the days of the year, upon that day. You and your husband were in Sitting in the sun under the dovehouse wall.
Boy, do I have some memory! But like I 30 My lord and you were then at Mantua. Then the Of my dug and felt it bitter, pretty fool, dovehouse shook with the earthquake.